B1. Other bodies may use other definitions for other purposes: this annex gives some examples. It then discusses how some deaths from certain other causes might be counted as well, to obtain a wider view of mortality arising from drug misuse.
B2. First, there is a ‘wide’ definition which is used by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) to provide figures for deaths from drug poisoning. It covers the following cause of death categories (the relevant codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision [ICD10], are given in brackets):
The main differences between this ‘wide’ definition and the one used to produce the statistics given in this publication (the ‘baseline’ definition for the UK Drugs Strategy) are:
Therefore, the 'wide' definition's figures are markedly higher.
B3. Second, there is the definition used by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) for its ‘general mortality register’. The rules for this definition refer to particular codes for the underlying causes and the types of substance involved, and (in some cases) specify the combinations that must occur for a death to be counted under this definition. It produces figures which are broadly similar to those of the UK Drug Strategy definition, but which cover deaths which involved the use of a different (albeit overlapping) range of drugs: so some deaths which are counted under the EMCDDA definition are not counted under the UK Drug Strategy definition, and vice versa. In the ‘… in 2015’ edition, the EMCDDA figures for some of the years from 2000 to 2014 were revised slightly from those published previously, following advice, from Public Health England (which co-ordinates the provision of figures for the UK to the EMCDDA) that deaths satisfying some other criteria should be counted in the EMCDDA definition.
B4. Because National Records of Scotland (NRS) has details of all the deaths which were registered in Scotland, it can produce figures using the ONS ‘wide’ definition and the EMCDDA ‘general mortality register’ definition, as well as using the definition of the ‘baseline’ for the UK Drug Strategy. These are given in Table X. As the table and Figure 4 show, the numbers produced using the three definitions tend to rise and fall in broadly similar ways, and so all three definitions give similar impressions of the long-term trend, although they differ regarding the numbers of deaths in each year. Figures based on the ONS ‘wide’ definition have been provided for 1979 onwards, but numbers based on the other two definitions are only available for 1996 and later years. A separate note, 'Figures for drug-related deaths for Scotland for 1995 and earlier years' is available on the NRS website, explains why NRS cannot produce figures for drug-related deaths for 1995 and earlier years on the basis of the standard definition, comments on the potential reliability of the numbers on the basis of the ONS ‘wide’ definition for 1979 to 1999, and explains why it is not possible to produce reliable figures for drug-related deaths on that basis for 1978 or earlier years.
B5. As explained above, the ONS ‘wide’ definition includes all deaths coded to accidental poisoning, and to intentional self-poisoning by drugs, medicaments and biological substances, whether or not a drug listed under the Misuse of Drugs Act was present in the body. Table Y shows the numbers of deaths (on this basis) in each year for the latest year, and over the previous ten years, for which a range of drugs (including anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, paracetamol or a compound, and tramadol) were reported. Section 2 explains why there is a break in the series between 2007 and 2008. In some of the earlier editions of this publication, the table showed that, for example, the number of deaths for which anti-depressants were reported tended to be in the range 70-90 per year between 2000 and 2007, whereas for paracetamol or a compound the number fell from around 120 to about 60. The table also shows recent years’ rises in the numbers of deaths involving certain drugs, such as diclazepam, etizolam, gabapentin and pregabalin.
B6. The former Scottish Crime and Drug Enforcement Agency (SCDEA) used a different definition. In Autumn 2007, the then General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) compared some of the details of the drug-related deaths (in terms of the ‘baseline’ UK Drug Strategy definition) in 2006 that were held by GROS and the deaths that were recorded in an SCDEA database of drug-related deaths. The results may be summarised as follows:
B7. Because the numbers involved are smaller, and because there may be differences in the way in which cases are counted against geographical areas, there may be larger (in percentage terms) differences between NRS and other bodies in their figures for parts of Scotland. For example, in September 2010, the then Grampian Police investigated the difference between its figure of 43 and the then GROS's figure of 52 for the number of drug-deaths in the Grampian area in 2009. The Police's results may be summarised as follows:
Grampian Police also looked at the statistics for individual local authority areas, and found further differences between its figures and those of the then GROS. These were due to different practices for counting deaths against geographical areas. For example, the Police figures for Aberdeen City included deaths, which had occurred in Aberdeen, of people who had lived in Aberdeenshire or Moray. GROS counted such cases on the basis of its understanding of the area of residence of the deceased.
B8. It follows that there will inevitably be differences between NRS's figures and those of other bodies, because different organisations may use different definitions, perhaps because their reasons for compiling their figures differ because they need to use them for different purposes. For example, the Police did not include suicides in their drug-related death figures because their need for such figures was to monitor the numbers of cases where people have died accidentally after taking controlled drugs, as they have a duty to investigate any potential criminal activity involved in the supply of controlled drugs to the deceased. The Police investigate suicides in a different way (for which it does not matter what method was used, such as legal or illegal drugs, hanging, or falling from a height), and therefore did not include suicides involving drugs in their drug-related death figures. In addition, NRS and other bodies may hold different information in some cases (for example when registering a young person's death, a parent may say that the person's usual place of residence was the family's home address, whereas the Police records may hold a different address). This may sometimes lead to differences in the direction of the year-to-year change shown by NRS's and another body's statistics (for example one set of data might suggest a slight rise, the other a slight fall). However, such differences between NRS's and other bodies' figures should not be a cause for concern, because they can be explained by the kinds of reasons given above. In addition, as mentioned in sections 4 and 5, the figures for any given part of Scotland may be subject to year-to-year fluctuations: using 5-year moving averages should provide a better indication of the level and any long-term trend than looking only at (say) the figure for the latest year and the change from the previous year.
B9. Other organisations may interpret the term ‘drug-related deaths’ in other ways. For example, drug-related deaths which were known to be suicides were excluded from the National Drug-Related Deaths Database (Scotland) Report 2009, which was prepared by the Information Services Division (ISD) of NHS National Services Scotland, and is available (along with the corresponding reports for 2010 and later years) on the ISD website. However, that definition of drug-related deaths was changed to include confirmed suicides for the first time in the ISD database for 2012. ISD's database was established to collect detailed information, from a range of local data sources, on the nature and circumstances of people who had died a drug-related death - for example, including data on the person's social circumstances, medical and drug use history, and previous contact with health and criminal justice services. The ISD publication for 2009 included sections on Sociodemographics, Drug Use History, Medical and Psychiatric History and Adverse Life Events, the Death, Toxicology and Substance Prescribing, and Contact With Services. It also had an appendix on the reasons for differences between ISD's figures and those given here, which include some differences in coverage and definitions (such as the exclusion of confirmed suicides for the years before 2012) and the fact that ISD’s local contacts did not provide data for some drug-related deaths.
B10. Among the recommendations made by the National Forum on Drug-related Deaths in its annual report for 2009/10 was one which relates to this publication:
‘In recognition of the expanding range of causes of drug related deaths, and in keeping with the aims of the Advisory Committee on Misuse of Drugs report on Drug Related Deaths (published in 2000) to include a wider view of mortality caused by drug misuse, the forum recommends:
As a result, Table Z was added to the previous edition of this publication.
B11. The top part of Table Z gives the numbers of deaths counted as ‘drug-related’ on the basis of the ‘wide’ definition, with separate figures for:
B12. The remainder of Table Z gives some information which was requested by members of the National Forum, starting with the numbers of deaths from some causes which may be associated with present or past drug misuse. At present, this shows only the following two causes of death:
B13. The final part of Table Z shows the number of volatile substance abuse deaths in Scotland, which used to be produced and published by the International Centre for Drug Policy (ICDP) at St George's, University of London. For the purposes of ICDP's statistics:
A few deaths per year could be counted as both ‘drug-related’ and ‘volatile substance abuse’ (for example if the cause was ‘combined toxic effects of methadone and butane’). ICDP produced its figures for Scotland using information from NRS, the Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal Service, and other sources.
However, ICDP's statistics related to the year of death (rather than the year of registration). More details of the figures that ICDP used to produce are given in its Volatile Substance Abuse Mortality Report, available via the news and publication section of the St George’s website.